### Some mathematics facts

Mathematics is the abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and other properties; it has no generally accepted definition.

The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns and the recording of time. More complex mathematics did not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy. The systematic study of mathematics in its own right began with the Ancient Greeks between 600 and 300 BC.

Isaac Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. It also demonstrated that the motion of objects on the Earth and that of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles.

Mathematics is the abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and other properties; it has no generally accepted definition.

Carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as "the Queen of the Sciences."

Benjamin Peirce called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions."

David Hilbert said of mathematics: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise."

French mathematician Claire Voisin states "There is creative drive in mathematics, it's all about movement trying to express itself."

Benjamin Peirce called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions."

Aristotle defined mathematics as "the science of quantity", and this definition prevailed until the 18th century.

Three leading types of definition of mathematics are called logistic, intuitionist, and formalist, each reflecting a different philosophical school of thought.

Intuitionist definitions, developing from the philosophy of mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer, identify mathematics with certain mental phenomena.

Benjamin Peirce called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions."

An example of an intuitionist definition is "Mathematics is the mental activity which consists in carrying out constructs one after the other."

Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II. The decimal number system in use today was first recorded in Indian mathematics. Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, and algebra. In addition, trigonometry was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics.

Srinivasa Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions.

Mahavira was a 9th-century Indian mathematician from Gulbarga who asserted that the square root of a negative number did not exist. He gave the sum of a series whose terms are squares of an arithmetical progression and empirical rules for area and perimeter of an ellipse.